Muhammad Zikri Nurhakim

Mental Disorder

Is a syndrome or pattern of behavior, or psychological clinics someone who is quite significant, and are typically associated with a symptom of pain or disturbance in one or more essential functions of humans. In addition, it was concluded that the dysfunction is a dysfunction in terms of behavior, psychological or biological, and disorders that are not located solely within the relationship between man and society (Rusdi Maslim, 1998).

Classification of Mental Disorders
Classification of psychiatry involves differentiation of normal from abnormal behavior. In this case the normal and abnormal may mean that healthy and sick, but it can also be used in another sense. A number of psychiatric symptoms differ sharply from the normal and almost always indicate disease: Mental disorders are divided into two major mental disorders, if mental illness and mental disabilities. Mental disability which includes a state of intellectual deficit and have been since birth or at an early age. Mental disease implies that the previous health, developing a disorder or a disorder that manifests later in life
1. Mental illness in principle divided into psychoneurosis and psychosis. This category in accordance with the lay of the anxiety and madness. Psychoneurosis a common condition whose symptoms can be understood and emphatic. Psychosis is a disease whose symptoms can not be understood and not emphatic and clients often lose contact with reality.
2. The term functional and organic diseases showed etiology and used to divide psychosis. Functional psychosis is a disorder of function, with no pathological abnormalities that can be proven

Causes of Mental Disorders
The main symptoms or prominent symptoms of mental disorders contained in mental element, but perhaps the main cause of loss (somatogenic), in the social environment (sociogenic) or psychological (psychogenic), (Maramis, 1994). Usually there is no single cause, but some of the causes and the various elements that affect each other or accident occur together, then become mental disorders.
 1. Biological
For example for schizophrenia, no studies in the family DNA samples to find evidence of a defective gene, located on chromosome 5. But the research that examines family with high incidence found no evidence of a link between chromosome 5 and schizophrenia.  Schizophrenia is a group of disorders that produce similar symptoms but have different biological causes Dopamine, neurochemistry, and differences in brain structure irregularities. 
2. Social and psychological
Poverty populated houses, malnutrition, educationàlow socioeconomic /  is not complete, inadequate parenting, lack of time for the family, no sense of security and comfort. Full of criticism / anger, communication, confusing communication 
Traumatic events 
¬ stressful environmental conditions
¬ Modeling
¬ negative self-concept, low confidence, the ability of low social relations
¬ Poor to adjust and deal with environmental


Picture 2. Me (left) & client with mental disorder (right)
Location: Under Pasopati Bridge, Bandung


Type of Mental Disorders
Mental disorders means that the prominent symptoms are the psychological from the psychic element (Maramis, 1994). Various kinds of mental disorders (Rusdi Maslim, 1998): organic mental disorders and symptomatic, schizophrenia, disturbances and disorders skizotipal supposition, feeling mood disorders, neurotic disorders, somatoform disorders, behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors, personality disorders and adulthood behavior, mental retardation, developmental disorders psychological, behavioral and emotional disorders with onset during childhood and adolescence. 


1). Schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia is a form of functional psychosis the most severe, and caused disorganization of the biggest personalities. Schizophrenia is also a form of psychosis that is often found everywhere from time immemorial. Nevertheless our knowledge about the causes and pathogenesis very less (Maramis, 1994). In severe cases, clients do not have contact with reality, so that abnormal thinking and behavior. Course of the disease will gradually towards chronicle, but can occasionally arise attacks. Rarely perfect recovery can occur spontaneously and if not treated usually end up with a damaged personality "defects".



2). Depression
Depression is a disturbance of human functions related to the natural feelings of sadness and symptoms, including changes in sleep patterns and appetite, psychomotor, concentration, fatigue, despair and helplessness, and suicidal ideas (Kaplan, 1998). Depression can also be interpreted as a form of psychological disorder in nature which is marked by feelings of depression, freedom, absence of passion, feeling useless, hopeless and so forth. Depression is a feeling of sadness and suffering associated with. Attacks can be directed at oneself or feelings of deep anger. Depression is a pathological disturbance of mood has the characteristics of a variety of feelings, attitudes and beliefs that a person living alone, pessimism, despair, lack empowerment, low self-esteem, guilt, negative expectations and fear of impending danger. Depression is sadness that resembles a normal feelings that arise as a result of certain circumstances such as death of a loved one. Instead of losing a sense of knowing someone will refuse to lose and show signs of sadness with depression (Rawlins et al., 1993). Individuals who suffer from mood feeling (mood) that depression will usually lose interest and excitement, and reduced energy leading to the state of tiredness and reduced activity. Depression is considered normal for a lot of stress and abnormal life only if he is not worth the cause and the event continues until the point where most people begin to recover. (Atkinson, 2000).

3). Anxiety
Psychic experience of anxiety as a normal and natural, ever experienced by everyone in order to spur individuals to overcome the problems facing the best, Maslim (1998). A state of a person to feel worried and afraid as a form of reaction from non-specific threats (Rawlins et al., 1993). The cause and source is usually not known or not recognized. The intensity of anxiety is distinguished from mild anxiety to severe levels. According to Sundeen (1995) identifies a range of responses into four levels of anxiety which include, mild, moderate, severe anxiety and panic. 


4). Personality Disorder
Clinic showed that the symptoms of personality disorder (psikopatia) and nerosa symptoms similar shape to those with high or low intelligence. So arguably the personality disorders, and disruption nerosa the bulk of intelligence does not depend on one another or are not correlated. Classification of personality disorders: paranoid personality, affective or siklotemik personality, schizoid personality, explosive personality, anakastic or obsessive personality-compulsive, hysterical personality, asthenia personality, antisocial personality, passive aggressive personality, personality inadequate, Maslim (1998).

5). Organic Mental Disorder
Is a psychotic mental disorder or non-psychotic disorders caused by brain tissue function (Maramis, 1994). Malfunctioning of the brain tissue can be caused by physical disease of the brain primarily or mainly outside the brain. When the affected part of the brain was extensive, the basic disturbance of mental function is the same, not depending on the disease caused when only part of the brain with specific functions are impaired, then this is what determines the location of symptoms and syndrome, not a disease that causes it. The division became psychotic and not psychotic more show severe brain disorder in a particular disease rather than the division of acute and chronic.
6). Psychosomatic disorders
Is a psychological component that followed bodily dysfunction (Maramis, 1994). It often happens that neurotic developments reveal a lot or simply because malfunctioning organs controlled by the vegetative nervous system. Psychosomatic disorders can be equated with what is called the first neurosa organs. Since usually only the affected faal function, so often called psycho-physiologic disorders.

7). Mental retardation
Mental retardation is a state of mental development is interrupted or incomplete, which mainly characterized by the occurrence during the development of skills, so the impact on the overall level of intelligence, such as cognitive ability, language, motor and social (Maslim, 1998).

8). Behavioral Problems In Children and Youth.
           Children with behavioral disorders who do not behave in accordance with the request, habits or norms of society (Maramis, 1994). Children with behavior disorders may cause difficulties in the care and education. Behavior disorders may come from a child or perhaps from the environment, but ultimately both of these factors affect each other. Given that the character and shape of the body as well as general personality traits that can be derived from parent to child. In brain disorders such as head trauma, encephalitis, neoplasm can cause personality changes. Environmental factors can also affect children's behavior, and often more decisive because the environment can be changed, then the behavioral disturbances so it can be affected or prevented.

Here are the signs of people at greater risk for mental disorders / mental illness:
1. Feeling depressed, sad or high levels of stress constantly.
2. Often thinking / dreaming of the ordinary (delusions).
3. Difficulty to perform work or daily tasks, although work has been undertaken for many years.
4. Paranoid (anxiety / fear) in the ordinary things that for normal people not to fear or worry.
5. Like to use drugs just for fun.
6. Have thought to end the life or suicide.
7. Self change significantly.
8. Have emotions or feelings are easily changeable.
9. Pattern of dietary changes.
10. Sleep patterns do not change as usual. (Depkes, 1993)
According to the understanding of health, mental illness, if someone said he was no longer able to function normally in everyday life, at home, at school / college, at work and in social environments. Someone who has a mental disorder will experience an inability to function optimally in daily life.  (Adel, 2009)
Statistical data presented by WHO-World Health Organization (1990) mentions that at any time, 1% of the world's population are in need of help and treatment for a mental disorder. Meanwhile, 10% of the population need mental medical assistance at one time in his life.
 

MENTAL DISORDERS RESULTING (Erwan, 2009)
1. Internal
a.   In Feelings
Anxious, sad, unhappy, bitter, low self-esteem, unstable emotion, frustration.? Be careful with: learned helplessness
b.   In Mind / Intelligence
Hard to concentrate on important things, easily forgotten, decreased ability to think, less able to use the intelligence dimilki (less lost his composure soul).
Be careful with: Pattern / power convergent thinking (one way) because the loss of creativity, spontaneity and originality
c.   On Behavior
Isolate themselves, suddenly become silent, often daydreaming, expression of anger is not natural (not in accordance with the stimulus) both in themselves and to others, because of dissatisfaction with himself and conflicts that are not channeled. Be careful with: the desire to keep himself aloof
d.  On Physical Health
Psychosomatic: physical pain caused by mental problems, such as blood pressure increases / decreases, migraine, diarrhea, ulcers, allergies, etc.. Be careful with: psychosomatic which "legalized"

2. External
a. To Couple
Reduce the quality of relationships, communication, intimacy, commitment, spreading confusion, hurt, anger, terror, domestic violence
b. To Children 
Being a model is VERY BAD, a confused child, loved but hated, hated, but loved, shake his personality, turning facts play, destroy faith development, making children with low emotional intelligence, cutting the child's identity formation, domestic violence (Domestic Violence) will produce children with mental disorders are more severe.
c. In Employment
Decreased task completion until incapacitated. Low problem solving, cooperation decreases, especially for synergy.

MENTAL DISORDERS THERAPY
  1. Mental Disorder Light
Consultation with the concerned friend, counselor, clergy Relaxation, Stress management exercise routine regularly, spiritual activity
  1. Mental Disorder Medium
Consultation with a psychologist, a trained counselor, a trained spiritual leaders Relaxation, Stress management  exercise routine regularly, spiritual activity and stronger
  1. Serious Mental Disorder
Treatment with a psychiatrist, who primarily for farmako-therapy, psychotherapy and consultation to psychologists to support the family and the environment.
 routine activities of the discipline and control that have been planned (Godam, 2009)


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3 Responses
  1. Anonim Says:

    nice...
    complete
    good job!!!

    klo bisa tambahin nursing care'nya kang . . .
    bwt referensi qt2 jg..
    okai??

    ^_^.....vQ.....


  2. It is very interesting for our knowledge. I hope you send more information like this. Thanks for sharing such kind of useful information.


  3. I really like this blog..Blogs are so informative where we get lots of information on any topic. Nice job keep it up!!


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