Muhammad Zikri Nurhakim

Signs And Symptoms Of Mental Disorders

Cognition disorders.
Mental processes of an individual to realize and maintain good relationship with the environment in the environment and external environment. Disturbance of perception of illusions, hallucinations. Hallucinations are divided into several types such as auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, hallucinations olfactory, gustatory hallucinations, tactile hallucinations, sexual hallucination, hallucination kinesthetic, visceral hallucinations, depersonalization, de realization (Yosep, 2007).

Attention Disorder

Attention is the centralization and concentration of energy rate in a cognitive process that comes from the outside due to a stimulation. There are 3 requirements that must be fulfilled that is inhibitory, apersepsi, and adaptation. Some form of attention disorder
1. Distractibility, attention easily distracted by stimuli that does not mean (eg, mosquito sounds, vehicles, passersby)
2. Aprosexia, diligently watching the inability of the situation / circumstances without regard to the importance of the problem.
3. Hyperprosexia, state the concentration of excessive concentration so that narrow the existing perceptions.


Picture 1. Me (right) & patient with mental disorder (left) Uncensored:p

 Location: Near Ikopin Bridge, Jatinangor


Memory disorders
Memory is the ability to record, store, and produce content and signs of consciousness. So the memory process consists of recording, storing, and recalling. Influential factor is age, fatigue, anxiety. Kinds of memory disorders are:
1. Amnesia, unable to recall the experience there. Retrograde or ante grade are also psycho gen.
2. Hypernemsia, calling it an excessive return on past events  detail. often occurs in mania, paranoia, and catatonic.
3. Paramnesia, disturbance of memory distortion known good long. This distortion occurs due to the calling process paramnesia useful as a protection against fear. Type, namely: confabulation, retrospective falsification, déjà vu, de Jamais vu.
 

Association Disorder
Association is the mental process with a lemon, impression, or the memory representation tends to give the impression or the memory of previous responses related. Factor, namely: environmental conditions, new events occur, lessons and previous experience, expectations and habits of a person, needs and emotional history.
Forms of interference associations:
1. Retardation, the association that lasted more slowly than usual.
2. Poverty of ideas, there is a lack of association used
3. Perseverasi, the association started again, unable to let go of ideas that have been spoken.
4. Flight of ideas, the flow of associations happened very quickly, looking from the change content of the conversation and thought. The idea of a not yet completed, followed by other ideas.
5. Incoherence, the flow of associations is not related to each other. Shaped as a "word salad" or neologisms (creation of new words that do not mean).
6. Blocking, failure to form associations, ranging from the situation as a result of strong emotional reactions.

Considerations Disorders
Consideration is the mental process to compare or evaluate several options in a framework to deliver value to decide the purpose and objectives of an activity. Three things that support the functioning of the consideration of sensory apparatus, memory, and motor apparatus. Classified as noise interference considerations thought process (supposition).

Thought Disorder
The normal thinking process flow contains ideas, symbols, and associations that focus on the goal and raised by a problem or task that can lead to a solution-oriented reality. Factors that influence the thinking process of somatic factors (brain disorders and fatigue), psychological factors (emotional disorders and psychosis), social factors (noise and a certain social circumstances).
Some form of disturbance of thinking process:
1. Disturbance of mind, including deviations from rational thinking, logic, and focus on a goal.
a. Deristic mind, the thought-form which there is no relationship between the experience of mental processes that are running. Here the mental processes do not fit with reality
b. Autistic mind, disorders of the failure to distinguish the line between reality and fantasy. Someone wants to satisfy a fantasy.
c. Non-realistic mind, the prominent symptoms of schizophrenia in addition hebephrenic behavior childish.
d. Obsessive thoughts, the ideas always come over and over, irrational, and consciously do not want, but can not be eliminated.
e. Confabulation, disruption of one's mind to unite things that are not related to fill vacancies arising because of the thought of memory loss.


2. Interference currents or way of thinking and the rate includes ways of thinking processes such as association, flight of ideas, retardation, persevarasi, circumstantialities, incoherence, blocking, logorrhea, neologisms, irrelevant, aphasia.
3. Disturbance thoughts
a. Supposition Trust stunned that can not be corrected on the basis of facts. Must be maintained, pathological and not related to local culture.
b. Phobia. An irrational fear of an object or situation that can not be eliminated or suppressed by the patient even though we realize that it is irrational.
c. Ideas of reference, a condition where the conversation of people, objects, or events connected with himself.
d. Pre Occupation, thought that fixed only on one idea, usually associated with strong emotional state.
e. Thought Insertion, feeling that there are thoughts from the outside that is inserted and incorporated into his brain.
f. Thought broadcast. The feeling that his thoughts have been broadcast on radio, television, wire electrical clay, and light.

Emotion and Affective Disorders
Emotion is the experience of conscious and exert influence on the activities of the body and produces organic and kinetic sensations. Affects the life of feeling or tone of one's emotional feelings, pleasant or not that accompanies thoughts, usually long and often accompanied by physiological components. Forms of emotional and affective disorders:
a. Euphoria, a pleasant emotions cheerful, happy, happy, happy that excessive and inappropriate when considered abnormal circumstances.
b. Elation, excessive euphoria is often accompanied by motor labile emotions and often become irritable.
c. Exaltation, excessive elation accompanied by his greatness
d. Inappropriate affect, a clear distinction between emotions that seemed to situations that cause it, such as a disaster laugh
e. Ecclesia, excessive passion with a sense of security, peace, calm, associated with strong religious feelings
f. Affects the rigid, state where and needles will be retained despite there are stimuli that cause excessive emotional reactions.
g. Labile emotions, symptoms of a variety of emotional instability, rapid emotional changes from one to the other emotions
h. Anxiety and depression, symptoms appear from the face or the expression of behavior
i. Ambivalence, the emotions and affects arising opposite together in person, object, situation, hate but miss.
j. Apathetic, less or none at all in a state of emotional reaction that should lead to emotions.

Psychomotor Disturbances
Psychomotor body movements that are influenced by the state of the soul, so is the affect with which the body and soul. Also includes motor condition and motor aspects of a behavior. Type of psychomotor disturbances:
a. Increased activity,
1. Hyperactivity, hyper-kinetic, excessive activity by the intensity of the response increased
2. Hyper-tonicity, increased muscle tone handle
3. Noisy, restless catatonic, motor activity does not seem to aim many times, and seemed not to be influenced by external stimuli.

b. Activity decreased
1. Hypo-activity, hypo-kinetic, activities and movement intensity decreases with a decreasing response
2. Motor inertia, overall decreased activity, for example in the catatonic stupor.
3. Atonucit, state tone and abnormal muscle contraction, can be completely or partially.
4. Paralyses, loss of muscle function in whole or in part only.

c. Activity disrupted or not in accordance
1. Ataxia, there is no coordination in the movement in his legs or feet
2. Apraxia, unable to manipulate objects in a directed
3. Atetosys, continuous movement, diffuse, such as legs and felt pain.
4. Choreiform movements, irregular movements continuously will not occupied
5. Spasm, muscle contraction, auto part or all of which are not controlled by the will
6. Tremor, contraction of muscle fibers are light and rhythmic, which can not be controlled, can be slow, fast, rough or smooth, regular or irregular
7. Convulsions, seizures continued in large areas of the body and usually with loss of consciousness

d. Activity repeatedly
1. Cataleptic, rigidly maintaining a certain body position
2. Flexibility serea, one form cataleptic, which created the position of the body others maintained
3. Stereotype, one body movements over and over without a clear purpose

e. Automatism, the commands according to a command automatically without conscious
1. Automatism, to do something automatically as a symbolic expression of unconscious activity
2. Echopractia, directly copying another person's movements when he saw

3. Echolalia, a direct repeat or imitate what others are saying

f. Negativism, psychological defense is concerned with the fight or argue against what they were told. there are 2 kinds of active and passive.
g. Aversi, an aggressive reaction and shown to strongly resist, envy, hate, non-cooperative, refuse, and sometimes stupor reaction (Yosep, 2007).


REFERENCES
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WHO-World Health Organization (1990) www.who.org
 

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